Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS) in Italian

List of Authors: Battista Rosa Alessia, Ferraro Milena, Piccioni Lucia Oriella, Abdelwahab Mohamed, Battista Federica, John Michael, Saltychev Mikhail, Most Sam P., Bussi Mario

Publisher: SPRINGER

Publication year: 2021

Journal: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Journal name in source: AESTHETIC PLASTIC SURGERY

Journal acronym: AESTHET PLAST SURG

Number of pages: 9

ISSN: 0364-216X

eISSN: 1432-5241



Self-archived copy’s web address:


Backgrounds Rhinoplasty necessarily concerns functional and cosmetic aspects, and outcomes of both should be assessed in each patient. There has been a lack in the literature in Italian for a comprehensive tool for assessing both aspects of rhinoplasty. The objective is to translate and validate the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS) into Italian.

Methods Forward and back-translation was used. Content validity was evaluated by experts and by patient interviews. Internal consistency was assessed by a Cronbach's alpha. The structure validity was assessed by an exploratory factor analysis.

Results Cognitive interviews of 10 rhinoplasty patients resulted in a good overall comprehension of the SCHNOS. Of the 411 respondents, 281 (32%) were women, and the average age was 33.6 (11.3) years. The alpha was excellent for both the obstruction domain (SCHNOS-O) (0.90) and the cosmetic domain (SCHNOS-C) (0.94). All the correlations between repeated measures were moderate to very strong. The exploratory factor analysis demonstrated unidimensionality of both the SCHNOS-O and the SCHNOS-C scores.

Conclusions The SCHNOS was successfully translated and validated in Italian and can be recommended for a clinical use among rhinoplasty patients.

Last updated on 2022-17-01 at 12:14