A1 Journal article – refereed

Double-Antigen Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Anti-HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies Using Upconverting Nanoparticle Reporters

List of Authors: Martiskainen Iida, Juntunen Etvi, Salminen Teppo, Vuorenpää Karoliina, Bayoumy Sherif, Vuorinen Tytti, Khanna Navin, Pettersson Kim, Batra Gaurav, Talha Sheikh

Publisher: MDPI

Publication year: 2021

Journal: Sensors

Journal acronym: Sensors

Volume number: 21

Issue number: 2

eISSN: 1424-8220

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21020330

URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/21/2/330/htm


Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are often used for the detection of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in remote locations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with low or limited access to central laboratories. The typical format of an RDT is a lateral flow assay (LFA) with visual interpretation prone to subjectivity. This risk of misinterpretation can be overcome with luminescent upconverting nanoparticle reporters (UCNPs) measured with a miniaturized easy-to-use reader instrument. An LFA with UCNPs for anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies was developed and the assay performance was evaluated extensively with challenging patient sample panels. Sensitivity (n = 145) of the UCNP-LFA was 96.6% (95% CI: 92.1–98.8%) and specificity (n = 309) was 98.7% (95% CI: 96.7–99.7%). Another set of samples (n = 200) was used for a comparison between the UCNP-LFA and a conventional visual RDT. In this comparison, the sensitivities for HIV-1 were 96.4% (95% CI: 89.8–99.3%) and 97.6% (95% CI: 91.6–99.7%), for the UCNP-LFA and conventional RDT, respectively. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 96.4–100%) for both assays. The developed UCNP-LFA demonstrates the applicability of UCNPs for the detection of anti-HIV antibodies. The signal measurement is done by a reader instrument, which may facilitate automated result interpretation, archiving and transfer of data from de-centralized locations.

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Last updated on 2021-13-09 at 14:45