Refereed article in conference proceedings (A4)

Towards Comprehensive Information Security Awareness: A Systematic Classification of Concerns among University Students

List of Authors: Ali Farooq, Shamil Alifov, Seppo Virtanen, Jouni Isoaho

Conference name: International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference

Publication year: 2018

Journal: Electronic Workshops in Computing

Book title *: Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2018)

Title of series: Electronic Workshops in Computing

ISSN: 1477-9358


Self-archived copy’s web address:


In this paper, we
have systematically identified and classified information security concerns
(ISCs) of university students into areas where
users perceive information security threats. 354 university students
were asked to elicit their level of concern on a given set of 74 ISCs using a 7-point scale. Factor analysis (PCA) produced
an 11-factor solution, each factor
depicting an area of concern. These areas were
related to Personal (legal awareness), Social (Sociality), Institutional (Staff
member lapses, University networks), Technological (Online social network use,
Intrusive service providers, Web browsing and email, Smartphone use, Electronic
device use, and Conventional threats), and Non-technological (Cards and wallets
security) aspects of student’s day-to-day life. The majority of the
students (66%) showed concerns related to online social network use, whereas,
only 40% of them shown concerns related to sociality. The highest level of concerns
was related to service providers, whereas the lowest level of concerns was related to sociality

Downloadable publication

This is an electronic reprint of the original article.
This reprint may differ from the original in pagination and typographic detail. Please cite the original version.

Last updated on 2022-07-04 at 17:00