Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Chronic kidney disease stage is associated with the number of risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients (STages Of NEphropathy in type 2 diabetes and Heart Failure - STONE HF)

List of AuthorsMetsärinne Kaj, Pietilä Mikko, Kantola Ilkka, K Stenman Lotta, Vesikansa Aino, Ruokolainen Lasse, Niskanen Leo; STONE HF (STages Of NEphropathy in type 2 diabetes and Heart Failure) study investigators

PublisherElsevier BV

Publication year2023

JournalPrimary Care Diabetes

Journal name in sourcePrimary care diabetes

Journal acronymPrim Care Diabetes






Aims: To study the association between risk factors and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and characterize medication use in Finnish primary care type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.

Methods: Data on clinical characteristics, laboratory measurements, and medications were collected from medical records. The primary outcome measure was notable CKD (stage 3-5, eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) and/or increased albuminuria. The explanatory variables were individual risk factors and risk factor groups based on their number (0-2, 3-4, 5-6, >7). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and risk ratio analysis were used to analyze the association between the number of risk factors and CKD stage, and between the number of risk factors and notable CKD, respectively.

Results: Altogether, 1335 patients with T2D in 60 Finnish primary care centers were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Three-quarters of T2D patients had 3 risk factors and 36% had ≥ 5 risk factors. Compared to patients with 0-2 risk factors, patients with 3-4, 5-6, and ≥ 7 risk factors had a 5.5-fold, 9.9-fold, and 15.9-fold risk of notable CKD (p < 0.001), respectively. Heart failure was most strongly associated with notable CKD (risk ratio, 3.7; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Number of risk factors was strongly associated with advanced-stage CKD.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Risk factors; Type 2 diabetes.

Copyright © 2023 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Last updated on 2023-30-11 at 13:00