Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Additive Manufacturing of Resected Oral and Oropharyngeal Tissue: A Pilot Study

List of Authors: Irace Alexandria L, Koivuholma Anne, Huotilainen Eero, Hagström Jaana, Aro Katri, Salmi Mika, Markkola Antti, Sistonen Heli, Atula Timo, Mäkitie Antti A

Publisher: MDPI

Publication year: 2021

Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health


Journal acronym: INT J ENV RES PUB HE

Volume number: 18

Issue number: 3

Number of pages: 12

eISSN: 1660-4601



Self-archived copy’s web address:

Better visualization of tumor structure and orientation are needed in the postoperative setting. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a system in which oral and oropharyngeal tumors are resected, photographed, 3D modeled, and printed using additive manufacturing techniques. Three patients diagnosed with oral/oropharyngeal cancer were included. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging followed by resection. In the operating room (OR), the resected tissue block was photographed using a smartphone. Digital photos were imported into Agisoft Photoscan to produce a digital 3D model of the resected tissue. Physical models were then printed using binder jetting techniques. The aforementioned process was applied in pilot cases including carcinomas of the tongue and larynx. The number of photographs taken for each case ranged from 63 to 195. The printing time for the physical models ranged from 2 to 9 h, costs ranging from 25 to 141 EUR (28 to 161 USD). Digital photography may be used to additively manufacture models of resected oral/oropharyngeal tumors in an easy, accessible and efficient fashion. The model may be used in interdisciplinary discussion regarding postoperative care to improve understanding and collaboration, but further investigation in prospective studies is required.

Downloadable publication

This is an electronic reprint of the original article.
This reprint may differ from the original in pagination and typographic detail. Please cite the original version.

Last updated on 2022-07-04 at 16:21