Refereed review article in scientific journal (A2)

Alterations in the oral microbiome in HIV infection: causes, effects and potential interventions




List of Authors: Li Shuang, Su Bin, He Qiu-Shui, Wu Hao, Zhang Tong

Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS

Publication year: 2021

Journal: Chinese Medical Journal

Journal name in source: CHINESE MEDICAL JOURNAL

Journal acronym: CHINESE MED J-PEKING

Volume number: 134

Issue number: 23

Number of pages: 11

ISSN: 0366-6999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001825

Self-archived copy’s web address: https://research.utu.fi/converis/portal/detail/Publication/68459353


Abstract
A massive depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes has been described in early and acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, leading to an imbalance between the human microbiome and immune responses. In recent years, a growing interest in the alterations in gut microbiota in HIV infection has led to many studies; however, only few studies have been conducted to explore the importance of oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals. Evidence has indicated the dysbiosis of oral microbiota in people living with HIV (PLWH). Potential mechanisms might be related to the immunodeficiency in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals, including changes in secretory components such as reduced levels of enzymes and proteins in saliva and altered cellular components involved in the reduction and dysfunction of innate and adaptive immune cells. As a result, disrupted oral immunity in HIV-infected individuals leads to an imbalance between the oral microbiome and local immune responses, which may contribute to the development of HIV-related diseases and HIV-associated non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome comorbidities. Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant decrease in occurrence of the opportunistic oral infections in HIV-infected individuals, the dysbiosis in oral microbiome persists. Furthermore, several studies with the aim to investigate the ability of probiotics to regulate the dysbiosis of oral microbiota in HIV-infected individuals are ongoing. However, the effects of ART and probiotics on oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals remain unclear. In this article, we review the composition of the oral microbiome in healthy and HIV-infected individuals and the possible effect of oral microbiome on HIV-associated oral diseases. We also discuss how ART and probiotics influence the oral microbiome in HIV infection. We believe that a deeper understanding of composition and function of the oral microbiome is critical for the development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for HIV infection.

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Last updated on 2022-14-01 at 15:45