Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

APOE Genotype Disclosure and Lifestyle Advice in a Randomized Intervention Study with Finnish Participants

List of Authors: Leskinen Heidi M, Tringham Maaria, Karjalainen Heli, Iso-Touru Terhi K, Hietaranta-Luoma Hanna-Leena, Marnila Pertti J, Pihlava Juha-Matti, Hurme Timo, Kankaanpää Santeri J, Puolijoki Hannu, Åkerman Kari, Tanner Laura, Sandell Mari, Vähäkangas Kirsi, Hopia Anu, Tahvonen Raija, Rokka L Susanna


Publication year: 2021

Journal: Journal of Nutrition

Journal name in source: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION

Journal acronym: J NUTR

Volume number: 151

Issue number: 1

Number of pages: 13

ISSN: 0022-3166

eISSN: 1541-6100



Background: The APOE ε4 allele is associated with higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer disease than ε3 and ε2.
Objectives: We studied the effectiveness of dietary and lifestyle guidance and personal genetic risk information [ε4 carrier (ε4+); ε4 noncarrier (ε4-)] as motivators for a healthier lifestyle.
Methods: A total of 188 healthy Finnish volunteers (82.4% women; mean +/- SD age: 51.0 +/- 5.6 y; BMI: 26.0 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; total cholesterol: 5.2 +/- 0.9 mmol/L) participated in our randomized intervention study. The participants were genotyped for APOE and divided into intervention (INT; INTε4+, n = 33; INTε4-, n = 57) and control groups (CTRL; CTRLε4+, n = 36; CTRLε4-, n = 62). Blood samples, measured observations, and questionnaire data were obtained at baseline and at 1 and 1.5 y. INT participants received their ε4 carrier status at baseline. Monthly Internet-based guidance based on the Finnish Dietary guidelines was provided for all.
Results: The proportion of SFAs in plasma over time fluctuated less in INTε4+ than in the other groups (P-interaction < 0.05; primary outcome). The lifestyle guidance increased vegetable consumption from 3.5 to 3.6 portions/d, improved the dietary fat quality score by 5.3%, increased the plasma n-3 (ω-3) FA proportion by 7.3%, and decreased the consumption of high-fat/high-sugar foods from 7.3 to 6.5 portions/wk and totaland LDL-cholesterol concentrations by 4.3% and 6.1%, respectively, in the entire participant population (P < 0.05; secondary outcome). Compared with the ε4- participants, ε4+ participants had 2.4% higher plasma n-6 (ω-6) FA, lower C-peptide (3.9 compared with 4.2 nmol/L x h) and sensitive C-reactive protein values, and decreased plasma malondialdehyde concentrations over time (P < 0.05; secondary outcome).
Conclusions: Lifestyle guidance given to healthy Finnish participants yielded small but beneficial changes. The INTε4+ group did not seem markedly more responsive to the guidance than the other groups. This trial was registered at as NCT03794141.

Last updated on 2022-04-10 at 11:03