A1 Journal article – refereed

15 years of galactic surveys and hard X-ray background measurements

List of Authors: Krivonos Roman A., Bird Anthony J., Churazov Eugene M., Tomsick John A., Bazzano Angela, Beckmann Volker, Bélanger Guillaume, Bodaghee Arash, Chaty Sylvain, Kuulkers Erik, Lutovinov Alexander, Malizia Angela, Masetti Nicola, Mereminskiy Ilya A., Sunyaev Rashid, Tsygankov Sergey S., Ubertini Pietro, Winkler Christoph

Publisher: Elsevier B.V.

Publication year: 2021

Journal: New Astronomy Reviews

Journal name in source: New Astronomy Reviews

Volume number: 92

ISSN: 1387-6473

eISSN: 1872-9630

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newar.2021.101612


The INTEGRAL hard X-ray surveys have proven to be of fundamental importance. INTEGRAL has mapped the Galactic plane with its large field of view and excellent sensitivity. Such hard X-ray snapshots of the whole Milky Way on a time scale of a year are beyond the capabilities of past and current narrow-FOV grazing incidence X-ray telescopes. By expanding the INTEGRAL X-ray survey into shorter timescales, a productive search for transient X-ray emitters was made possible. In more than fifteen years of operation, the INTEGRAL observatory has given us a sharper view of the hard X-ray sky, and provided the triggers for many follow-up campaigns from radio frequencies to gamma-rays. In addition to conducting a census of hard X-ray sources across the entire sky, INTEGRAL has carried out, through Earth occultation manoeuvres, unique observations of the large-scale cosmic X-ray background, which will without question be included in the annals of X-ray astronomy as one of the mission’s most salient contribution to our understanding of the hard X-ray sky.

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Last updated on 2021-24-06 at 10:47