A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä

Population Modelling of Dexmedetomidine Pharmacokinetics and Haemodynamic Effects After Intravenous and Subcutaneous Administration

Julkaisun tekijät: Muhammad W. Ashraf, Panu Uusalo, Mika Scheinin, Teijo I. Saari

Kustantaja: Adis

Julkaisuvuosi: 2020

Journal: Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Tietokannassa oleva lehden nimi: Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Volyymi: 59

Julkaisunumero: 11

Sivujen määrä: 16

ISSN: 0312-5963

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-020-00900-3


Background and Objective: Dexmedetomidine is a potent agonist of α2-adrenoceptors causing dose-dependent sedation in humans. Intravenous dexmedetomidine is commonly used perioperatively, but an extravascular route of administration would be favoured in palliative care. Subcutaneous infusions provide desired therapeutic plasma concentrations with fewer unwanted effects as compared with intravenous dosing. We aimed to develop semi-mechanistic population models for predicting pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of dexmedetomidine after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing.

Methods: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling was performed using previously collected concentration and haemodynamic effects data from ten (eight in the intravenous phase) healthy human subjects, aged 19–27 years, receiving 1 µg/kg of intravenous or subcutaneous dexmedetomidine during a 10-min infusion.

Results: The absorption of dexmedetomidine from the subcutaneous injection site, and distribution to local subcutaneous fat tissue was modelled using a semi-physiological approach consisting of a depot and fat compartment, while a two-compartment mammillary model explained further disposition. Dexmedetomidine-induced reductions in plasma norepinephrine concentrations were accurately described by an indirect response model. For blood pressure models, the net effect was specified as hyper- and hypotensive effects of dexmedetomidine due to vasoconstriction on peripheral arteries and sympatholysis mediated via the central nervous system, respectively. A heart rate model combined the dexmedetomidine-induced sympatholytic effect, and input from the central nervous system, predicted from arterial blood pressure levels. Internal evaluation confirmed the predictive performance of the final models, as well as the accuracy of the parameter estimates with narrow confidence intervals.

Conclusions: Our final model precisely describes dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics and accurately predicts dexmedetomidine-induced sympatholysis and other pharmacodynamic effects. After subcutaneous dosing, dexmedetomidine is taken up into subcutaneous fat tissue, but our simulations indicate that accumulation of dexmedetomidine in this compartment is insignificant.

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Last updated on 2021-24-06 at 11:30