Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Role of Heparan Sulfate in Cellular Infection of Integrin-Binding Coxsackievirus A9 and Human Parechovirus 1 Isolates

List of Authors: Merilahti P, Karelehto E, Susi P


Publication year: 2016

Journal: PLoS ONE

Journal name in source: PLOS ONE

Journal acronym: PLOS ONE

Volume number: 11

Issue number: 1

Number of pages: 13

ISSN: 1932-6203



Heparan sulfate/heparin class of proteoglycans (HSPG) have been shown to function in cellular attachment and infection of numerous viruses including picornaviruses. Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) and human parechovirus 1 (HPeV-1) are integrin-binding members in the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 Griggs and HPeV-1 Harris (prototype) strains have been reported not to bind to heparin, but it was recently shown that some CV-A9 isolates interact with heparin in vitro via VP1 protein with a specific T132R/K mutation. We found that the infectivity of both CV-A9 Griggs and HPeV-1 Harris was reduced by sodium chlorate and heparinase suggestive of HSPG interactions. We analyzed the T132 site in fifty-four (54) CV-A9 clinical isolates and found that only one of them possessed T132/R mutation while the other nine (9) had T132K. We then treated CV-A9 Griggs and HPeV-1 Harris and eight CV-A9 and six HPeV-1 clinical isolates with heparin and protamine. Although infectivity of Griggs strain was slightly reduced (by 25%), heparin treatment did not affect the infectivity of the CV-A9 isolates that do not possess the T132R/K mutation, which is in line with the previous findings. Some of the HPeV-1 isolates were also affected by heparin treatment, which suggested that there may be a specific heparin binding site in HPeV-1. In contrast, protamine (a specific inhibitor of heparin) completely inhibited the infection of both prototypes and clinical CV-A9 and HPeV-1 isolates. We conclude that T132R/K mutation has a role in heparin binding of CV-A9, but we also show data, which suggest that there are other HSPG binding sites in CV-A9. In all, we suggest that HSPGs play a general role in both CV-A9 and HPeV-1 infections.

Last updated on 2021-24-06 at 10:07