Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia




List of Authors: M. Valkama , K. Sundblad, N. J. Cook, V. I. Ivashchenko

Publisher: Springer

Publication year: 2016

Journal: Mineralium Deposita

Volume number: 51

Issue number: 6

Number of pages: 17

ISSN: 0026-4598

eISSN: 1432-1866

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00126-016-0641-4


Abstract

The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the 19th to 20th centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25 km long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognized after the dominating metal; Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As


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