Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Polarized blazar X-rays imply particle acceleration in shocks

List of AuthorsLiodakis I, Marscher AP, Agudo I, Berdyugin AV, Bernardos MI, Bonnoli G, Borman GA, Casadio C, Casanova V, Cavazzuti E, Cavero NR, Di Gesu L, Di Lalla N, Donnarumma I, Ehlert SR, Errando M, Escudero J, Garcia-Comas M, Agis-Gonzalez B, Husillos C, Jormanainen J, Jorstad SG, Kagitani M, Kopatskaya EN, Kravtsov V, Krawczynski H, Lindfors E, Larionova EG, Madejski GM, Marin F, Marchini A, Marshall HL, Morozova DA, Massaro F, Masiero JR, Mawet D, Middei R, Millar-Blanchaer MA, Myserlis I, Negro M, Nilsson K, O'Dell SL, Omodei N, Pacciani L, Paggi A, Panopoulou GV, Peirson AL, Perri M, Petrucci PO, Poutanen J, Puccetti S, Romani RW, Sakanoi T, Savchenko SS, Sota A, Tavecchio F, Tinyanont S, Vasilyev AA, Weaver ZR, Zhovtan AV, Antonelli LA, Bachetti M, Baldini L, Baumgartner WH, Bellazzini R, Bianchi S, Bongiorno SD, Bonino R, Brez A, Bucciantini N, Capitanio F, Castellano S, Ciprini S, Costa E, De Rosa A, Del Monte E, Di Marco A, Doroshenko V, Dovciak M, Enoto T, Evangelista Y, Fabiani S, Ferrazzoli R, Garcia JA, Gunji S, Hayashida K, Heyl J, Iwakiri W, Karas V, Kitaguchi T, Kolodziejczak JJ, La Monaca F, Latronico L, Maldera S, Manfreda A, Marinucci A, Matt G, Mitsuishi I, Mizuno T, Muleri F, Ng SCY, Oppedisano C, Papitto A, Pavlov GG, Pesce-Rollins M, Pilia M, Possenti A, Ramsey BD, Rankin J, Ratheesh A, Sgro C, Slane P, Soffitta P, Spandre G, Tamagawa T, Taverna R, Tawara Y, Tennant AF, Thomas NE, Tombesi F, Trois A, Tsygankov S, Turolla R, Vink J, Weisskopf MC, Wu KW, Xie F, Zane S


Publication year2022


Journal name in sourceNATURE

Journal acronymNATURE

Volume number611

Start page677

End page681

Number of pages12





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Most of the light from blazars, active galactic nuclei with jets of magnetized plasma that point nearly along the line of sight, is produced by high-energy particles, up to around 1 TeV. Although the jets are known to be ultimately powered by a supermassive black hole, how the particles are accelerated to such high energies has been an unanswered question. The process must be related to the magnetic field, which can be probed by observations of the polarization of light from the jets. Measurements of the radio to optical polarization—the only range available until now—probe extended regions of the jet containing particles that left the acceleration site days to years earlier1,2,3, and hence do not directly explore the acceleration mechanism, as could X-ray measurements. Here we report the detection of X-ray polarization from the blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501). We measure an X-ray linear polarization degree ΠX of around 10%, which is a factor of around 2 higher than the value at optical wavelengths, with a polarization angle parallel to the radio jet. This points to a shock front as the source of particle acceleration and also implies that the plasma becomes increasingly turbulent with distance from the shock.

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Last updated on 2023-05-02 at 12:37