Vertaisarvioitu alkuperäisartikkeli tai data-artikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä (A1)

Quasi-static loading of glass fiber-reinforced composite cervical fusion cage

Julkaisun tekijät: Luoma Jaakko, Saarenpää Ilkka, Rinne Jaakko, Frantzén Janek, Moritz Niko, Vallittu Pekka K

Kustantaja: Elsevier

Julkaisuvuosi: 2022

Journal: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials

Tietokannassa oleva lehden nimi: Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials

Lehden akronyymi: J Mech Behav Biomed Mater

Volyymi: 136

ISSN: 1878-0180

eISSN: 1878-0180





Anterior decompression and fusion in cervical spine has become one of the most common procedures in neurosurgery. In the surgery, cervical cage implants made of different biomaterials are used. Our purpose was to create a cervical cage made of glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) filled with bioactive glass particles and to characterize its behavior in quasi-static compression/shear stress loading conditions.

Materials and methods

FRC cages (n = 6) were manufactured with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 layers of glass fiber laminates and thermoset dimethacrylate resin matrix resulting in wall thickness from 0.70 to 2.1 mm. Control cage was a commercial PEEK cage (CeSpaceXP) implant with asymmetrical wall thickness of up 4.0 mm. Interior of the cage was filled with glass particles of the size 500–1250 μm simulating the bioactive glass which are used in FRC cranial implants. The FRC cages were quasi-statically loaded (compressive/shear stress) at a constant speed of 1 mm/min in the air.


The average yield strength force (YF) of the control PEEK cage was 3483.6 N (±134.3 N). The average YFs for tested FRC cage with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 layers of FRC fabric varied from 1336.5 N (±403.8 N) to 7675.0 N (±670.0 N), respectively. The average ultimate forces (UF) for tested FRC cages varied from 1535.8 N (±406.2 N) to 9975.0 N (±1492.4 N). With six layers of FRC fabric, YF of the FRC cage was comparable to the PEEK implants.


In this study, it was demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture a cervical interbody fusion device made of FRC and filled with bioactive glass with proper load bearing capacities. Because of physical properties of FRC-bioactive glass, the FRC cage might have some advances compared to the state-of-the-art cages, like faster bony union and smaller rate of subsidence, which will be studied in the future.

Last updated on 2022-04-11 at 13:16