Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Influence of Large-scale Interplanetary Structures on the Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles: The Multispacecraft Event on 2021 October 9

List of Authors: Lario D, Wijsen N, Kwon RY, Sanchez-Cano B, Richardson IG, Pacheco D, Palmerio E, Stevens ML, Szabo A, Heyner D, Dresing N, Gomez-Herrero R, Carcaboso F, Aran A, Afanasiev A, Vainio R, Riihonen E, Poedts S, Bruden M, Xu ZG, Kollhoff A

Publisher: IOP Publishing Ltd

Publication year: 2022

Journal: Astrophysical Journal

Journal name in source: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL

Journal acronym: ASTROPHYS J

Volume number: 934

Issue number: 1

Number of pages: 27

ISSN: 0004-637X



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An intense solar energetic particle (SEP) event was observed on 2021 October 9 by multiple spacecraft distributed near the ecliptic plane at heliocentric radial distances R less than or similar to 1 au and within a narrow range of heliolongitudes. A stream interaction region (SIR), sequentially observed by Parker Solar Probe (PSP) at R = 0.76 au and 48 degrees east from Earth (phi = E48 degrees), STEREO-A (at R = 0.96 au, phi = E39 degrees), Solar Orbiter (SolO; at R = 0.68 au, phi = E15 degrees), BepiColombo (at R = 0.33 au, phi = W02 degrees), and near-Earth spacecraft, regulated the observed intensity-time profiles and the anisotropic character of the SEP event. PSP, STEREO-A, and SolO detected strong anisotropies at the onset of the SEP event, which resulted from the fact that PSP and STEREO-A were in the declining-speed region of the solar wind stream responsible for the SIR and from the passage of a steady magnetic field structure by SolO during the onset of the event. By contrast, the intensity-time profiles observed near Earth displayed a delayed onset at proton energies greater than or similar to 13 MeV and an accumulation of less than or similar to 5 MeV protons between the SIR and the shock driven by the parent coronal mass ejection (CME). Even though BepiColombo, STEREO-A, and SolO were nominally connected to the same region of the Sun, the intensity-time profiles at BepiColombo resemble those observed near Earth, with the bulk of low-energy ions also confined between the SIR and the CME-driven shock. This event exemplifies the impact that intervening large-scale interplanetary structures, such as corotating SIRs, have in shaping the properties of SEP events.

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Last updated on 2022-15-08 at 10:06