Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

High-Resolution Spectral and Anisotropy Characteristics of Solar Protons During the GLE N(circle)73 on 28 October 2021 Derived with Neutron-Monitor Data Analysis

List of Authors: Mishev Alexander L, Kocharov Leon G, Koldobskiy Sergey A, Larsen Nicholas, Riihonen Esa, Vainio Rami, Usoskin Ilya G

Publisher: SPRINGER

Publication year: 2022

Journal: Solar Physics

Journal name in source: SOLAR PHYSICS

Journal acronym: SOL PHYS

Volume number: 297

Issue number: 7

Number of pages: 23

ISSN: 0038-0938



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The first ground-level enhancement of the current Solar Cycle 25 occurred on 28 October 2021. It was observed by several space-borne and ground-based instruments, specifically neutron monitors. A moderate count-rate increase over the background was observed by high-altitude polar stations on the South Pole and Dome C stations at the Antarctic plateau. Most of the neutron monitors registered only marginal count-rate increases. Using detrended records and employing a method verified by direct space-borne measurements, we derive the rigidity spectra and angular distributions of the incoming solar protons in the vicinity of Earth. For the analysis, we employed a newly computed and parameterized neutron-monitor yield function. The rigidity spectra and anisotropy of solar protons were obtained in their time evolution throughout the event. A comparison with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (SOHO/ENRE) experiment data is also performed. We briefly discuss the results derived from our analysis.

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Last updated on 2022-12-08 at 13:22