Refereed journal article or data article (A1)

Inhaled Sargramostim Induces Resolution of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Lysinuric Protein Intolerance

List of AuthorsLaura M. Tanner, Johanna Kurko, Maaria Tringham, Heikki Aho, Juha Mykkänen, Kirsti Näntö-Salonen, Harri Niinikoski, Heikki Lukkarinen

Publication year2017

JournalJIMD Reports

Volume number34

Start page97

End page104

Number of pages8



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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a potentially fatal complication of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), an inherited disorder of cationic amino acid transport. The patients often present with mild respiratory symptoms, which may rapidly progress to acute respiratory failure responding poorly to conventional treatment with steroids and bronchoalveolar lavations (BALs). The pathogenesis of PAP in LPI is still largely unclear. In previous studies, we have shown disturbances in the function and activity of alveolar macrophages of these patients, suggesting that increasing the activity and the number of macrophages by recombinant human GM-CSF (rhuGM-CSF) might be beneficial in this patient group.

Two LPI patients with complicated PAP were treated with experimental inhaled rhuGM-CSF (sargramostim) after poor response to maximal conventional therapy. BAL fluid and cell samples from one patient were studied with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Excellent response to therapy was observed in patient 1 with no compliance problems or side effects. Macrophages with myelin figure-like structures were seen in her BAL sample. Slight improvement of the pulmonary function was evident also in patient 2, but the role of sargramostim could not be properly evaluated due to the complicated clinical situation.

In conclusion, inhaled rhuGM-CSF might be of benefit in patients with LPI-associated PAP.

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Last updated on 2022-07-04 at 16:22