A1 Journal article – refereed
‘Sandwich generation’: generational transfers towards adult children and elderly parents

List of Authors: Hans Hämäläinen, Antti O. Tanskanen
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication year: 2019
Journal: Journal of Family Studies
Journal name in source: Journal of Family Studies
Volume number: 25
ISSN: 1322-9400
eISSN: 1839-3543


study investigated intergenerational transfers by the sandwich
generation towards adult children and elderly parents. Using data on
generational transmissions in Finland from a 2012 survey, we employed
family fixed effect regressions and investigated whether the Finnish
baby boomers (age 62–67 years) provided more support towards their adult
children than towards their elderly parents. Four forms of
intergenerational transfers were considered: financial aid, practical
help, care, and emotional closeness. Emotional closeness, care, and
financial aid were directed more often towards adult children than
elderly parents. In contrast, practical help was directed more often
towards elderly parents than adult children. The results regarding the
direction of investments were similar among women and men. However,
women were emotionally closer to their adult children than were men and
provided more care to both elderly parents and adult children, while men
gave more practical help to children than did women. Finally, the
downward transfers were directed more often towards daughters than to
sons by women (emotional closeness and childcare) and men (practical
help and childcare). Women directed upward investment more often towards
mothers than fathers (emotional closeness and care). The results are
discussed with reference to reproductive value and intergenerational
stake hypotheses.

KEYWORDS: Family generationsFinlandfixed effect regressionkin supportsandwich generation

Internal Authors/Editors

Last updated on 2019-20-07 at 11:07