A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Near-miss apparent SIDS from adrenal crisis

List of Authors: Gassner HL, Toppari J, Quinteiro González S, Miller WL
Publication year: 2004
Journal: Journal of Pediatrics
Journal name in source: The Journal of pediatrics
Journal acronym: J Pediatr
Volume number: 145
Issue number: 2
ISSN: 0022-3476

Adrenal crisis from salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) typically occurs in the first 2 weeks of life. We evaluated 3 infants with adrenal crisis who presented at 6 to 8 months of age with near-miss sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).\nThree 46,XY phenotypic female infants presented near death at 6 to 8 months of age with adrenal crisis and unmeasurable steroid hormones consistent with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH).\nWe sequenced genes potentially causing this phenotype: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin, and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). Site-directed mutagenesis and functional assays were performed for the missense mutation.\nHormonal values showed complete absence of adrenal and gonadal steroids. Patient 1 was a compound heterozygote for missense mutation R140P and an mRNA splice donor site mutation in the StAR gene. The R140P mutation was wholly inactive in vitro. Patient 2 was homozygous for a 7 base pair StAR deletion causing a frameshift. No mutations were found in Patient 3, suggesting a novel disease.\nAlthough genetic disorders of steroidogenesis typically present in the first month of life, some defects, especially those in StAR, can present in mid-infancy, when adrenal hyperplasias are rarely considered. Adrenal insufficiency is a subtle disorder that may cause cardiovascular collapse, causing unexplained infant death that resembles SIDS.\nOBJECTIVE\nSUBJECTS\nMETHODS\nRESULTS\nCONCLUSIONS

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