A1 Journal article – refereed
Genetics and hormones in testicular descent

List of Authors: Kaleva M, Toppari J
Journal: Hormones (Athens, Greece)
Journal name in source: Hormones (Athens, Greece)
Journal acronym: Hormones (Athens)
Volume number: 2
Issue number: 4
ISSN: 1109-3099

Testicular descent is an essential part of normal male sexual development. Any anomaly that disrupts normal testicular descent will be clinically evident as cryptorchidism. Several factors, such as Hoxa-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and hormones, especially androgens and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL-3), have been suggested as being regulators of testicular descent. Testicular descent from the lower pole of the kidney into the extra-abdominal scrotal sac is a two-stage process of transabdominal and inguino-scrotal migration. The transabdominal phase is androgen independent, whereas the inguino-scrotal phase depends on androgen action. Disruption of androgen action eg. by environmental anti-androgens are suspected as contributing to cryptorchidism. Estrogens can down-regulate INSL-3 production and thereby disturb testicular descent. Familial occurrence in some cases suggests a possible genetic background for cryptorchidism.

Last updated on 2019-21-08 at 21:10