A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Cryptorchidism: an indicator of testicular dysgenesis?

List of Authors: Kaleva M, Toppari J
Publication year: 2005
Journal: Cell and Tissue Research
Journal name in source: Cell and tissue research
Journal acronym: Cell Tissue Res
Volume number: 322
Issue number: 1
ISSN: 0302-766X

Cryptorchidism is a common ailment of new-born boys, affecting 1-9% of full term boys at birth. Cryptorchidism has been associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer and reduced fertility. Aetiology of cryptorchidism remains obscure in most cases. Familial occurrence suggests a heritable susceptibility to cryptorchidism; however, seasonal variation in the incidence of cryptorchidism suggests that environmental factors also contribute. Testicular descent is characterised by androgen-dependent regression of cranial suspensory ligament and androgen + insulin-like hormone 3 (Ins l3)-dependent gubernacular outgrowth. Even though hormonal defects are rarely detected in patients, both hypo-and hypergonadotropic hormonal patterns have been associated with cryptorchidism. Moreover, cryptorchid boys have significantly reduced serum androgen bioactivity at 3 months of age when normal boys have a strong surge of reproductive hormones. Defects in Ins l3 action cause cryptorchidism in male mice, and over-expression in female mice causes ovarian descent. Defects in leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 8/G-protein-coupled receptor affecting testis descent (LGR8/GREAT), the receptor for Ins l3, manifest the same phenotype as Ins l3 knockout mutants. Even though mutations found in Ins l3 and LGR8/GREAT genes are not a common cause of cryptorchidism in patients, it remains to be resolved whether low Ins l3 levels during development are associated with cryptorchidism. Cryptorchidism may reflect foetal testicular dysgenesis that may later manifest as subfertility or testicular cancer.

Last updated on 2019-21-08 at 21:57