A1 Journal article – refereed
Interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interferon induced protein-10, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein among mechanically ventilated severe community-acquired viral and bacterial pneumonia patients

List of Authors: Jaana Karhu, Tero Ilmari Ala-Kokko, Tytti Vuorinen, Pasi Ohtonen, Ilkka Julkunen, Hannu Tapani Syrjä
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Publication year: 2019
Journal: Cytokine
Volume number: 113
Number of pages: 5
ISSN: 1043-4666
eISSN: 1096-0023



The serum cytokine levels among 45 mechanically ventilated, intensive care unit (ICU)-treated severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) patients with known microbial etiology in three different etiology groups were assessed.


Blood samples for C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-10, human interferon gamma induced protein (IP)-10, and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) were collected at time points 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after study inclusion.


There were 21 (43%) pure bacterial infections (bacterial group, BG), 5 (10%) pure viral infections (viral group, VG), and 19 (39%) mixed bacterial-viral infections (mixed group, MG) among 45 mechanically ventilated SCAP patients. CRP and PCT levels were significantly higher in the MG and values decreased with time in all groups. PCT differed also in time and group analysis (P = 0.001), the highest being in the MG. IL-5 levels were significantly higher in the VG compared to others (Ptime = 0.001, Pgroup = 0.051 and Ptimexgroup = 0.016). IL-6 and IP-10 levels decreased over time (Ptime = 0.003 and Ptime = 0.021), but there were no differences between groups.


SCAP patients with viral etiology have higher IL-5 levels. Patients with mixed viral and bacterial group have higher PCT compared to other etiologies.

Last updated on 2019-02-07 at 17:47