O2 Other

“Local” Dark Energy Outflows Around Galaxy Groups and Rich Clusters

List of Authors: Byrd G G, Chernin A D, Teerikorpi P, Dolgachev V P, Kanter A A, Domozhilova L M, Valtonen M

Publication year: 2013

Abstract

First detected at large Gpc distances, dark energy is a vacuum energy formulated as Einstein's cosmological constant, Λ. We have found its effects on “small” 1-3 Mpc scales in our Local Group. We have now found these effects in other nearby groups using member Doppler shifts and 3D distances from group centers (Cen A-M83; M81-M82; CV I). For the larger 20-30 Mpc Virgo and Fornax clusters, we now have found similar effects. Observationally, for both groups and clusters, gravity dominates a bound central system. The system gravitation and dark energy create a “zero-gravity” radius (R_{ZG}) from the center where the two balance. Smaller members bound inside R_{ZG} may be pulled out along with the less bound members which recede farther. A linear increase of recession with distance results which approaches a linear global Hubble law. These outflows are seen around groups in cosmological simulations which include galaxies as small as ~10^{-4} of the group mass. Scaled plots of asymptotic recessional velocity, V/(H(R_{ZG})), versus distance/ R_{ZG} of the outer galaxies are very similar for both the small groups and large clusters. This similarity on 1-30 Mpc scales suggests that a quasi-stationary bound central component and an expanding outflow applies to a wide range of groups and clusters due to small scale action of dark energy. Our new text book: Byrd, G., Chernin, A., Terrikorpi, P. and Valtonen, M. 2012, "Paths to Dark Energy: Theory and Observation," de Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, contains background and cosmological simulation plots. Group data and scaled plots are in our new article: A. D. Chernin, P. Teerikorpi, V. P. Dolgachev, A. A. Kanter, L. M. Domozhilova, M. J. Valtonen, and G. G. Byrd, 2012, Astronomy Reports, Vol. 56 , p. 653-669.