A1 Journal article – refereed
Glyphosate decreases mycorrhizal colonization and affects plant-soil feedback

List of Authors: Marjo Helander, Irma Saloniemi, Marina Omacini, Magdalena Druille, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Kari Saikkonen
Publication year: 2018
Journal: Science of the Total Environment
Journal acronym: SCI TOTAL ENVIRON
Volume number: 642
Number of pages: 7
ISSN: 0048-9697
eISSN: 1879-1026

Our aim was to study the effects of glyphosate, tilling practice and cultivation history on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of target (weeds) and non-target (crops) plants. Glyphosate, the world's most widely used pesticide, inhibits an enzyme found in plants but also in microbes. We examined the effects of glyphosate treatment applied in the preceding fall on growth of a perennial weed, Elymus repens (target plant) and a forage grass, Festuca pratensis (non-target plant) and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMP) root colonization in a field pot experiment. Nontarget plants were sown in the following spring. Furthermore, we tested if glyphosate effects depend on tillage or soil properties modulated by long cultivation history of endophyte symbiotic grass (E+ grass). AM' root colonization, plant establishment and growth, glyphosate residues in plants, and soil chemistry were measured. Glyphosate reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and growth of both target and non-target grasses. The magnitude of reduction depended on tillage and soil properties due to cultivation history of E+ grass. We detected glyphosate residues in weeds and crop plants in the growing season following the glyphosate treatment. Residues were higher in plants growing in no-till pots compared to conspecifics in tilled pots. These results demonstrate negative effects of glyphosate on non-target organisms in agricultural environments and grassland ecosystems. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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