A1 Journal article – refereed
Voiding school as a treatment for daytime incontinence or enuresis: Assessing the effectiveness of intervention by measuring changes in wetting episodes

List of Authors: A. Saarikoski, R. Koppeli, S. Taskinen, A. Axelin
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Publication year: 2018
Journal name in source: Journal of Pediatric Urology
ISSN: 1477-5131
eISSN: 1873-4898


Most urotherapy interventions are planned for children with daytime incontinence or symptoms, and are based on individual education. This study conducted a voiding school (VS) program with groups of 4–6 children with daytime incontinence or enuresis with or without daytime symptoms.
The aim of this quasi-experimental study with a one-group pretest–posttest design was to assess the effectiveness of the VS intervention for treating children's daytime incontinence or enuresis.
Materials and methods
Sixty-nine 6–12-year-old children with incontinence classified as treatment resistant participated in the VS at an outpatient clinic. Based on a power analysis, a sample of 52 participants was required. The VS involved two whole-day group visits 2 months apart. The educational content of the intervention was based on the International Children's Continence Society's standards for urotherapy, and was delivered with child-oriented teaching methods, including group discussions with peers. The primary outcome measure was the number of dry days and nights. The amount of wetting was also estimated, and the frequency of voiding measured. Data were collected with 1-week voiding diaries before and after each visit. Changes in dependent variables between four measurement points was measured by using repeated measures variance analysis. The long-term effectiveness was evaluated from patient records concerning 3-month follow-up phone calls or other contacts 8–18 months after the VS.
Fifty-eight children, 34 girls and 24 boys, completed the study. Twelve children had daytime incontinence, 18 had enuresis, and 28 had both. The number of dry days increased from a mean of 3.5–5.3 (P < 0.001), and the number of dry nights increased from a mean of 2.4–3.9 (P < 0.001) (Summary table). Thirteen (22%) children became completely dry. Three of them had daytime incontinence, five enuresis, and five both. Twenty-four out of 40 (60%) children with daytime incontinence, and 23 out of 46 (50%) children with enuresis showed ≥50% decrease in wetting episodes. The amount of wetting reduced, but the voiding frequency remained unchanged based on the voiding diaries. Twenty-two (45%) of the children were completely dry (six had daytime incontinence, nine enuresis, and seven both), and 16 (39%) showed further improvement, but eight (16%) children remained unchanged 8–18 months after the VS.
Voiding school (VS) was an effective intervention for treating both daytime incontinence and nocturnal enuresis in children who had not benefited from standard treatment and were classified as treatment resistant.

Last updated on 2018-04-09 at 20:15