A4 Article in conference proceedings
A 3.15pJ/cyc 32-bit RISC CPU with timing-error prevention and adaptive clocking in 28nm CMOS

List of Authors: Markus Hiienkari, Jukka Teittinen, Lauri Koskinen, Matthew Turnquist, Mikko Kaltiokallio, Jani Mäkipää, Arto Rantala, Matti Sopanen
Publication year: 2014
Book title *: IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC)
ISBN: 978-1-4799-3286-3


The increased performance from technology scaling makes it feasible to operate digital circuits at ultra-low voltages without the significant performance limitation of earlier process generations. The theoretical minimum energy point resides in near-threshold voltages in current processes, but device and environment variations make it a challenge to operate the circuits reliably. This paper presents an ASIC implementation of a 32-bit RISC CPU in 28nm CMOS employing timing-error prevention with clock stretching to enable it to operate with minimal safety margins while maximizing energy efficiency. Measurements show 3.15pJ/cyc energy consumption at 400mV/2.4MHz, which corresponds to 39% energy savings and 83% EDP reduction compared to operation based on static signoff timing.

Internal Authors/Editors

Last updated on 2019-20-07 at 17:45