B2 Book chapter
Cellulose- A Biomaterial with Cell-Guiding Property




List of Authors: Miretta Tommila, Anne Jokilammi, Risto Penttinen, Erika Ekholm
Publication year: 2013
Book title *: Cellulose - Medical, Pharmaceutical and Electronic Applications
Number of pages: 22
ISBN: 978-953-51-1191-7

Abstract

A biomaterial is defined as a material, either man-made or natural, intended to interact with


biological systems. It does not have a chemical effect in the organism, nor thus it need to be


metabolised to be active like for example drugs 1. When inserted into the body, a local


tissue inflammatory reaction called foreign body reaction is induced 2. This reaction may


either favour or adversely affect the tissue repair process.


Cellulose and its derivatives are well tolerated by most tissues and cells 3-5. These nontoxic


materials have good biocompability, therefore, they offer several possibilities in


medical applications. Regenerated cellulose sponges have also been used in experimental


surgery for decades as it does not affect the healing process, but acts as a chemoattractant


inducing cells involved in the repair process to migrate towards it 6-8.


We have studied different biomaterials including cellulose in search for an optimal bone


substitute. In bone defects, regenerated cellulose supported with cotton fibres was shown to


allow new bone in-growth to some degree 9-11. Oxidation with periodate and hydrogen


peroxide, or carbamination further improved its biocompability but not enough to be used


as bone substitutes. We also expected to increase the osteostimulating property of


regenerated cellulose by coating it with a silica-rich hydroxyapatite (HA) as it resembles the


mineral composition of bone. To our disappointment, the HA-coated cellulose did not


promote bone formation but favoured instead inflammation and fibroplasia. Since the bone


implant study revealed unexpectedly an enormous ability of the HA-implants to induce


granulation tissue, the coated cellulose was tested subcutaneously as well. These studies


showed that the HA-coated cellulose not only attracted inflammatory cells but also bone


marrow-derived progenitor cells of both haematopoietic and mesenchymal origin (see box


1). In this chapter, we will discuss cellulose as implant material with emphasis on the cell


guiding properties of regenerated cellulose coated with silica-rich HA.


Last updated on 2019-21-08 at 21:31