A4 Artikkeli konferenssijulkaisussa
A square root map on Sturmian words (Extended abstract)




Alaotsikko: (Extended abstract)
Julkaisun tekijät: Peltomäki Jarkko,Whiteland Markus
Julkaisuvuosi: 2015
Journal: Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Kirjan nimi *: Combinatorics on Words
Sarjan nimi: Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Volyymi: 9304
Sivujen määrä: 13
ISBN: 978-3-319-23659-9
eISBN: 978-3-319-23660-5

Tiivistelmä


We introduce a square root map on Sturmian words and study its properties. Given a Sturmian word of slope $alpha$, there exists exactly six minimal squares in its language (a minimal square does not have a square as a proper prefix). A Sturmian word $s$ of slope $alpha$ can be written as a product of these six minimal squares: $s = X_1^2 X_2^2 X_3^2 cdots$. The square root of $s$ is defined to be the word $sqrt{s} = X_1 X_2 X_3 cdots$. The main result of this paper is that that $sqrt{s}$ is also a Sturmian word of slope $alpha$. Moreover, we characterize the Sturmian fixed points of the square root map, and we describe how to find the intercept of $sqrt{s}$ and an occurrence of any prefix of $sqrt{s}$ in $s$. Related to the square root map, we characterize the solutions of the word equation $X_1^2 X_2^2 cdots X_n^2 = (X_1 X_2 cdots X_n)^2$ in the language of Sturmian words of slope $alpha$ where the words $X_i^2$ are minimal squares of slope $alpha$.



We also study the square root map in a more general setting. We explicitly construct an infinite set of non-Sturmian fixed points of the square root map. We show that the subshifts $Omega$ generated by these words have a curious property: for all $w in Omega$ either $sqrt{w} in Omega$ or $sqrt{w}$ is periodic. In particular, the square root map can map an aperiodic word to a periodic word.


Last updated on 2019-21-08 at 22:56