A1 Journal article – refereed
Identification of novel phospholipase A(2) group IX members in metazoans

List of Authors: Nevalainen TJ, Morgado I, Cardoso JCR
Publication year: 2013
Journal: Biochimie
Journal name in source: BIOCHIMIE
Journal acronym: BIOCHIMIE
Number in series: 8
Volume number: 95
Issue number: 8
Number of pages: 10
ISSN: 0300-9084

Sequence homologues of the bacterium Streptomyces violaceoruber and sea anemone Nematostella vectensis PLA(2) pfam09056 members were identified in several bacteria, fungi and metazoans illustrating the evolution of this PLA(2) sub-family. Comparison of their molecular structures revealed that bacteria and fungi members are part of the GXIV of PLA(2)s while metazoan representatives are similar with GIX PLA(2) of the marine snail Conus magus. Members of GXIV and GIX PLA(2)s show modest overall sequence similarity (21-35%) but considerable motif conservation within the putative Ca2+-binding, catalytic sites and cysteine residue positions which are essential for enzyme function. GXIV PLA(2)s of bacteria and fungi typically contain four cysteine residues composing two intramolecular disulphide bonds. GIX PLA(2) homologues were identified in cnidarians and molluscs and in a single tunicate but appear to be absent from other metazoan genomes. The mature GIX PLA(2) deduced peptides contain up to ten cysteine residues capable of forming five putative disulphide bonds. Three disulphide bonds were identified in GIX PLA(2)s, two of which correspond to those localized in GXIV PLA(2)s. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that metazoan GIX PLA2s cluster separate from the bacterial and fungal GXIV PLA25 and both pfam09056 members form a group separate from the prokaryote and eukaryote GXIIA PLA2 pfam06951. Duplicate PLA(2) pfam09056 genes were identified in the genomes of sea anemone N. vectensis and oyster Crassostrea gigas suggest that members of this family evolved via species-specific duplication events. These observations indicate that the newly identified metazoan pfam09056 members may be classified as GIX PLA(2)s and support the idea of the common evolutionary origin of GXIV and GIX PLA(2) pfam09056 members, which emerged early in bacteria and were maintained in the genomes of fungi and selected extant metazoan taxa. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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